Medical Services

Cardiology

Coronary Angiography is the Gold Standard test to diagnose coronary  artery disease. It is safe, effective, less time consuming and highly reliable. The procedure involves using a special dye (contrast) and x-rays to see how blood flows through the arteries in your heart. The procedure most often lasts 30 to 60 minutes. The same procedure is used to determine blockages in other vessels like renal artery (Kidney).

An angioplasty is a technique used to dilate a narrowed coronary artery with a balloon catheter. A small tube (catheter) is inserted in the groin which is then manoeuvred into the heart and coronary arteries. A balloon is then inserted through the catheter. The balloon is inflated inside a blood vessel to flatten any plaque that blocks it and cause it to become narrowed, decreasing the blood flow.

After the obstruction is relieved by the balloon dilation, most patients then immediately receive a stent. Stents are small, metal mesh cylinders that are delivered to the site of obstruction and expanded in the artery. Stents act as scaffolds to hold the artery open so it can heal with a normal diameter to allow blood to flow freely.

Elective angioplasty is performed on patients who are not experiencing a heart attack, but have blockages significant enough to require an interventional procedure. Primary (or emergency) angioplasty (PAMI) is performed on a patient who is in the throes of an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack).

 Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) enables healthcare providers to assess blood vessels from the inside. It uses sound waves to check for narrowing and blockages that can compromise blood flow. IVUS is a minimally invasive procedure involving tiny FFR (Fractional Flow Reserve) is a guide wire-based procedure that can accurately measure blood pressure and blood flow through a part of the coronary artery. FFR is done through a standard diagnostic catheter at the time of coronary angiography. The measurement of Fractional Flow Reserve is useful in assessing whether or not to perform angioplasty on certain blockages.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel invasive imaging technique done along with coronary angiography that produces high resolution intracoronary images. Using infrared light, OCT allows detailed evaluation of coronary atherosclerotic plaques and fills up the gaps in conventional invasive coronary angiography.

Sometimes, when the plaque (buildup of fat, cholesterol in artery’s inner lining) is particularly hard, or so narrow that the balloon can’t pass through it during angioplasty, rotablation may be used. A special catheter (a thin tube) is inserted along the wire with a tiny drill at its tip. This drill is used to grind away the plaque to gradually widen the narrowing in the artery. Once this is done, a balloon can be inserted and the angioplasty proceeds as usual.

In this procedure, a thin catheter is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed heart valve, a balloon located on the tip of the catheter is inflated, causing widening of the valve.

 Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a treatment for aortic valve stenosis. In this condition, also called aortic stenosis, the heart’s aortic valve thickens and becomes stiff and narrow. As a result, the valve can’t fully open and blood flow to the body is reduced. TAVR is an alternative to open-heart aortic valve replacement surgery. People who have TAVR often have a shorter hospital stay than those who have heart surgery to replace the aortic valve. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement also may be called transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) 

Pacemaker can monitor and record the rate and rhythm of the heart. The main purpose of a pacemaker is to make sure the heart rate does not get too slow. It is implanted under the skin on the chest.

Arrhythmias, which are abnormal heart rates or rhythms, are caused by issues with the electrical system of the heart. ICD (Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) is a device that can correct these life-threatening arrhythmias. It can perform cardioversion, defibrillation, and pacing of the heart. It is implanted under the skin on the chest.

A CRT-D is a special device for heart failure patients who are at high risk for sudden cardiac death. A CRT-D device can treat dangerously fast heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that can lead to sudden cardiac arrest. If the device senses heartbeats that are dangerously fast, it delivers a shock to the heart. This shock (defibrillation) stops the abnormal rhythm. Without this life-saving therapy, the dangerously rapid rhythm could lead to death in minutes.

CRT devices are fitted with a battery which will run out over time. Since the battery is permanently placed inside the device, it can’t be replaced when it’s down. So if the battery runs out, the entire device needs to be replaced. The battery life depends on the settings your doctor programs and how much therapy you receive.

Electrophysiology studies are minimally invasive procedures used for diagnostic study which tests the electrical conduction system of the heart. It is recommended in people with heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).

 

Cardiac ablation uses heat or cold energy to create tiny scars in the heart to block irregular electrical signals and restore a typical heartbeat. The procedure is used to correct heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).

Cardiac ablation is most often done using thin, flexible tubes called catheters inserted through the veins or arteries. Less commonly, ablation is performed during cardiac surgery.